Baldwin I of Jerusalem: The Syrian Christians who lived in the area were invited to settle in Jerusalem to replenish the population, which had been mostly massacred in In he built the castle of Scandalion near Tyre, which was still in Muslim hands.
Founding[ edit ] InBaldwin of Boulogne left the main Crusading army, which was travelling south towards Antioch and Jerusalem. He went first south into Ciliciathen east to Edessa, where he convinced its lord, Thorosto adopt him as son and heir. He also married Thoros' daughter, Arda of Armeniawho eventually became the first queen of Jerusalem.
Thoros was a Christian of Armenian origin but of Greek Orthodox religion and largely disliked by his Armenian Orthodox subjects, which led to his removal from power in March Different sources claim he was assassinated or abdicated, but it is unknown if Baldwin had any part in this. Nonetheless, Baldwin succeeded Thoros as ruler, taking the title of count having been Count of Verdun as a vassal of his brother in Europe.
The County of Edessa passed to his cousin Baldwin of Bourcq. He was joined by Joscelin of Courtenaywho became lord of the fortress of Turbessel on the Euphrates, an important outpost against the Seljuk Turks. The Frankish lords formed a good rapport with their Armenian subjects, and there were frequent intermarriages; the first three counts all married Armenians.
He helped secure the ransom of Bohemond I of Antioch from the Danishmends inand, with Antioch, attacked the Byzantine Empire in Cilicia in Later inEdessa was attacked by Mosuland both Baldwin and Joscelin were taken prisoner after their defeat at the Battle of Harran. Bohemond's cousin Tancred became regent in Edessa although Richard of Salerno actually governed the territoryuntil Baldwin and Joscelin were ransomed in Baldwin had to fight to regain control of the city; Tancred was eventually defeated, though Baldwin had to ally with some of the local Muslim rulers.
Inall lands east of the Euphrates were lost to Mawdud of Mosul. This was not followed by an assault on Edessa itself as the Muslim rulers were more concerned with consolidating their own power. Although Eustace of Boulogne had a better claim as the late Baldwin's brother, he was in France and did not want the title.
Edessa was given to Joscelin in Joscelin was taken prisoner once again in ; when Baldwin came to rescue him, he too was captured, and Jerusalem was left without its king. Joscelin escaped inand obtained Baldwin's release the next year.
Fall of the county[ edit ] Joscelin was gravely injured during a siege in and was succeeded by his son Joscelin II. By this time, Zengi had united Aleppo and Mosul and began to threaten Edessa.
Meanwhile, Joscelin II paid little attention to the security of his county, and argued with the counts of Tripoli who then refused to come to his aid.
Zengi besieged the city incapturing it on December 24 of that year. Joscelin continued to rule his lands west of the Euphrates, and he also managed to take advantage of the death of Zengi in September to regain and briefly hold his old capital.
The city was again lost in November, and Joscelin barely escaped. In he was captured by Zengi's son Nur ad-Dinand was kept a prisoner in Aleppo until he died in Edessa was the first Crusader state to be created, and also the first to be lost.
Crusader states are marked with a red cross. Edessa was one of the largest of the Crusader states in terms of territory but had one of the smallest populations. Edessa itself had about 10, inhabitants.
The rest of the county consisted mostly of fortresses. The county's territory extended from Antioch in the west to across the Euphrates in the east at its greatest extent.
It also often occupied land as far north as Armenia proper. To the south and east were the powerful Muslim cities of Aleppo and Mosul, and the Jazira northern Iraq.Baldwin I of Jerusalem ( April ) was the King of Jerusalem from 25 December to 2 April , succeeding Godfrey de Bouillon and preceding Baldwin II of Jerusalem.
Baldwin was born in to Count Eustache II of Boulogne and Ida of Lorraine, and he was the younger brother of. Baldwin of Boulogne (died ), count of Edessa (—), and first king of Jerusalem (—), was the brother of Godfrey of Bouillon, son of Eustace II of Boulogne.
As the younger brother of Godfrey, Baldwin was originally a clerk-in-orders, and held several church properties. Baldwin I: Baldwin I, king of the Crusader state of Jerusalem (–18) who expanded the kingdom and secured its territory, formulating an administrative apparatus that was to serve for years as the basis for Frankish rule in Syria and Palestine.
Son of Eustace II, count of Boulogne, and Ida d’Ardenne. Baldwin II, also known as Baldwin of Bourcq or Bourg (French: Baudouin; died 21 August ), was Count of Edessa from to , and King of Jerusalem from until his death. He accompanied his cousins, Godfrey of Bouillon, and Baldwin of Boulogne, to the Holy Land during the First Crusade.
Alternative Titles: Baldwin of Boulogne, Baudouin de Boulogne Baldwin I, byname Baldwin of Boulogne, French Baudouin de Boulogne, (born ?—died April 2, , Al-ʿArīsh, Egypt), king of the Crusader state of Jerusalem (–18) who expanded the kingdom and secured its territory, formulating an administrative apparatus that was to serve for years as the basis for Frankish rule in Syria and .
Baldwin I. Baldwin I (ca. ), a Norman known earlier as Baldwin of Boulogne and a chief lay leader of the First Crusade, reigned as king of Jerusalem from to Son of the Norman Count of Boulogne, Baldwin joined the First Crusade with his brothers, Eustace and Godfrey of Bouillon. Baldwin soon left the main army to establish himself in Edessa (modern Urfa, Turkey), a Byzantine town .