It is argued that all three structures develop due to differences in formalization, informal grouping, conventions and organizational culture. A major purpose of having rational power structure is to delegate power so that there must be someone who can be accountable in case things go wrong. Besides, it is considered that this delegation will make the participant more responsible.
He turns them round and round upon the wheel of Maya. Take refuge utterly in Him. By his grace you will find supreme peace, and the state which is beyond all change. As the above quotations indicate, almost all of the world's religions, in their own sacred writings and scriptures, say that they support "peace".
Yet it is a known fact that war and violence have often been undertaken historically, as well as at present, in the name of religion as is discussed further below. Yet religions profess to want peace. So what is 'peace'? And how have religions historically helped to promote peace, and how might they help create a more peaceful world in the 21st century?
These are a few of the questions that this paper will attempt to explore. Traditionally many people focus on how wars and conflicts are seemingly undertaken for religious reasons, or at least undertaken in the name of religion. Indeed, it is not difficult to find data and statistics in support of this hypothesis.
Quincy Wright, in his monumental study, A Study of Wardocuments numerous wars and armed conflicts that involve a direct or indirect religious component, Wright, as does Lewis Richardson in his statistical treatise, Statistics of Deadly Quarrels. Richardson, As the Cold War has ended and inter-ethnic conflicts have re-emerged in many parts of the world, it has indeed been a popular thesis of different writers to argue that these inter-ethnic conflicts often have a religious component.
A few examples of such recent writing include: Ethnicity in International Politics; and R. Following UNESCO's lead in holding two conferences on "The Contributions of Religions to a Culture of Peace" both held in Barcelona, Spain, in April and Decemberand other interfaith dialogues between different religions that are occurring in a serious way around the planet--including the World Parliament of Religions, in Chicago, August ; 1and the ongoing work of the World Council on Religion and Peace--this paper will focus instead on how religious and spiritual traditions can contribute to creating a more peaceful world via an exploration of the foundations for both inner and outer peace in the twenty first-century.
The paper will have four parts: In considering the external aspects of religion, principles from the field of intercultural communication are used to explore the creation of tolerance, understanding and valuing of diversity concerning different aspects of socially learned behavior or culture, including religion.
Fundamentalism or religious extremism or fanaticism--when religions claim their version of religion is the only one--are seen as an extreme form of the socially-learned aspect of religion and one not conducive to creating world peace.
In considering the internal or esoteric aspects of religion, it is noted that all the world's religions began with someone who had a mystical enlightenment or revelatory experience, which they then tried to share with others, leading often to the formation of new religions--even though this was not the intention of the original founder.
Parallels between new scientific paradigms and ancient mystical traditions from the world's religions are then noted to illustrate how contemporary dynamic, interconnected, whole systems ways of experiencing and viewing reality can be seen as providing necessary conditions "within the individual" for creating an external global culture of peace in the world.
Here, three different topical areas are explored: The conceptual shift involved in moving from peace as absence of war through peace as absence of large scale physical and structural violence negative and positive peace respectively to more holistic definitions of peace that apply across all levels and include both an inner and an outer dimension, represents a substantial broadening of the peace concept in Western peace research.
Part III then uses the above evolution in the concept of peace as a framework to explore different dimensions of "a culture of peace," as well as different dimensions of "nonviolence. An Agenda for Future Peace Research--Based on the Need to Focus on Both Inner and Outer Aspects of Peace Part IV argues that Western peace research has focused almost entirely on outer peace, but that in future it needs to deal with both inner and outer aspects of peace in a more balanced way.
In order to do this, it is suggested that peace research elaborate on the different dimensions and levels of inner peace, just as it has done for outer peace, and that it expand its methodology to include other ways of knowing besides social scientific methods only.
Finally, peace research needs to redress the inbalance between negative and positive images of peace by exploring not only what it wants to eliminate, for example war and starvation, but also what it wants to create in a positive sense.
Please note that this paper is an ongoing project that will become a book.
At present, some sections of the paper are developed more than others, but the basic framework is here. Please contact the writers in the future for later elaborations of this writing.
We offer this version of the paper with humility, aware that further revisions and elaborations are necessary. First, there is religion as socially-learned behavior, i. When religious beliefs take the form of rigid dogma, and the believers' beliefs and behavior are known to be right, while those of non believers, or other religions--or even different variants within one's own religion--are known to be wrong, this leads into what has been variously called "fundamentalism" or "fanaticism" or "extremism"--a global trend in almost all of the world's religions today.
At the other extreme are mystical traditions which are based on direct inner spiritual experiences. Here, such mystical, revelatory, or enlightenment experiences rather than socially learned behavior and beliefs constitute an important part of one's spiritual life.
Such spiritual experiences have also occurred in mystics from all the world's religions throughout the ages. Indeed, the founders of the world's religions were themselves usually mystics, i.
Given these considerations, it is possible to look at any religion as having a potential spectrum of different forms within it, each discussed separately in the paper, as follows: Spectrum of Potential Perspectives Within Any Religion It is interesting that mystics of all religions can usually communicate with each other and appreciate the spiritual or God force operating within each other--no matter what religious tradition the other mystics come from.Dec 30, · All these measures appear to be highly correlated with buying power per head (UNPD ), and since this measure is available for all the nations I use it in this analysis.
In the scattergram of Fig. 3, the number of happy life years is plotted vertically and income per head horizontally. Nations participate in global governance according to their economic power, which is coextensive with their rights. The global order is ruled by an informal cabinet of the world's economically most powerful countries; its law is the logic of the market, and status in this new order is a function of economic performance (Ake, 26).
The IDA, on the other hand, lends only to governments of very poor developing nations whose per capita GNP is below $1,, and in practice IDA loans go to countries with . Thus you are considering four examples in all, two that are uncontested, high legitimacy and two that are contested, low legitimacy, based on the two types of inequality.
The Sociological Analysis of Power and Authority Structures." The Review of Politics, Vol. 4, No.
1 (Jan., ), pp. they may experience a shift in the. The global economic crisis that began in accelerated this shift in economic power from developing to emerging economies, as the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) weathered the storm well and the developed economies of the United States, Europe, and Japan suffered and remain vulnerable more than four years later.
There are four major factors that cause both long-term trends and short-term fluctuations. These factors are government, international transactions, speculation and expectation, and supply and.