Geography and Early History of Israel and Palestine The land variously called Israel and Palestine is a small, 10, square miles at present land at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. During its long history, its area, population and ownership varied greatly.
A political umbrella organization of several Palestinian groups, the PLO thereafter consistently claimed to be the sole representative of all Palestinian people. Its first… Foundation and early development After the Arab-Israeli war of the Arab states, notably Egypttook the lead in the political and military struggle against Israel.
The Palestinians themselves had been dispersed among a number of countries, and—lacking an organized central leadership—many Palestinians formed small, diffuse resistance organizations, often under the patronage of the various Arab states; as a result, Palestinian political activity was limited.
The PLO was created at an Arab summit meeting in in order to bring various Palestinian groups together under one organization, but at first it did little to enhance Palestinian self-determination. Likewise, although the PLO received its funding from taxes levied on the salaries of Palestinian workers, for decades the organization also depended heavily on the contributions of sympathetic countries.
The defeat discredited the Arab states, and Palestinians sought greater autonomy in their struggle with Israel. In leaders of Palestinian guerrilla factions gained representation in the PNC, and the influence of the more militant and independent-minded groups within the PLO increased.
The more radical factions have remained steadfast in their goals of the destruction of Israel and its replacement with a secular state in which Muslims, Jews, and Christians would, ostensibly, participate as equals. Moderate factions within the PLO, however, have proved willing to accept a negotiated settlement with Israel that would yield a Palestinian state, which at times has led to internecine violence.
From the late s the PLO organized and launched guerrilla attacks against Israel from its bases in Jordanwhich prompted significant Israeli reprisals and led to instability within Jordan. During that time, factions within the PLO shifted from attacks on military targets to a strategy of terrorism—a policy the organization fervently denied embracing—and a number of high-profile attacks, including bombings and aircraft hijackings, were staged by PLO operatives against Israeli and Western targets.
Following negotiations, PLO forces evacuated Beirut and were transported to sympathetic Arab countries. It thus abandoned its long-standing goal of replacing Israel with a secular, democratic state in Palestine in favour of a policy accepting separate Israeli and Palestinian states, with the latter occupying the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.
This transfer was originally to have taken place over a five-year interim period in which Israel and the Palestinians were to have negotiated a permanent settlement.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles:The President of the Palestinian Authority, Mahmoud Abbas, is also head of its dominant faction, pfmlures.com word “Fatah” is a reverse acronym of the Arabic Harekat at-Tahrir al-Wataniyyeh al-Falastiniyyeh, meaning “conquest by means of jihad [Islamic holy war].”The Fatah flag features a grenade with crossed rifles superimposed on the map of Israel.
Camp David Accords: Camp David Accords, agreements between Israel and Egypt signed on September 17, , that led in to a peace treaty between the two countries, the first such treaty between Israel and any of its Arab neighbors.
Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian Pres. Anwar el-Sadat won the Nobel Peace Prize.
History and documents related to the Middle East and the Arab-Israel Conflict from the turn of the century to the present day, including UN resolutions, Balfour Declaration, Zionist documents, Resolutions of the Arab League with introductions.
The peace treaty with Israel was met with great resistance in the Arab World, and in Egypt was excluded from the Arab League. In Sadat was murdered by a member of an Egyptian fundamentalist Muslim organization. Within a decade, Israel signed a peace treaty with Egypt and returned the Sinai Peninsula.
Additional wars have been fought, though not always within the territory of Israel. The first Lebanon war was not against the Lebanese, but rather sought to end the attacks of Hezbollah, the Iranian-related organization that worked in concert with the.
Between and , the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the Palestinian Authority (PA) signed six agreements with Israel and conducted countless meetings and summits to bring about a lasting peace between them.