Footnotes Intro duction In Julyafter great trepidation, I finally decided to revise this essay. When I wrote the first draft of this essay init was a harrowing ordeal and the process inspired me to quit drinking, which I accomplished the next year. This essay will not be an enjoyable read, particularly for Americans. They are the only great ape to form ranked hunting parties and engage in warfarewith the goal of eliminating a neighboring band.
However, although Engels wrote in the s, his book was not translated into English until the late s, and his expression did not enter everyday language until then.
Credit for popularising the term may be given to Arnold Toynbeewhose lectures gave a detailed account of the term. This is still a subject of debate among some historians. Important technological developments The commencement of the Industrial Revolution is closely linked to a small number of innovations,  beginning in the second half of the 18th century.
By the s the following gains had been made in important technologies: Textiles — mechanised cotton spinning powered by steam or water increased the output of a worker by a factor of around Japan industrialization 1750 to 1914 The power loom increased the output of a worker by a factor of over The adaptation of stationary steam engines to rotary motion made them suitable for industrial uses.
Iron making — the substitution of coke for charcoal greatly lowered the fuel cost of pig iron and wrought iron production. The steam engine began being used to pump water to power blast air in the mid s, enabling a large increase in iron production by overcoming the limitation of water power.
It was later improved by making it double acting, which allowed higher blast furnace temperatures. The puddling process produced a structural grade iron at a lower cost than the finery forge. Hot blast greatly increased fuel efficiency in iron production in the following decades. Invention of machine tools — The first machine tools were invented.
These included the screw cutting lathecylinder boring machine and the milling machine. Machine tools made the economical manufacture of precision metal parts possible, although it took several decades to develop effective techniques.
Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution British textile industry statistics In Britain imported 2.
The work was done by hand in workers' homes or occasionally in shops of master weavers. In raw cotton consumption was 22 million pounds, most of which was cleaned, carded and spun on machines.
Value added by the British woollen industry was Cotton factories in Britain numbered approximately in In approximately one-third of cotton cloth manufactured in Britain was exported, rising to two-thirds by In cotton spun amounted to 5.
In less than 0. In there were 50, spindles in Britain, rising to 7 million over the next 30 years. In tropical and subtropical regions where it was grown, most was grown by small farmers alongside their food crops and was spun and woven in households, largely for domestic consumption.
In the 15th century China began to require households to pay part of their taxes in cotton cloth. By the 17th century almost all Chinese wore cotton clothing.
Almost everywhere cotton cloth could be used as a medium of exchange. In India a significant amount of cotton textiles were manufactured for distant markets, often produced by professional weavers.
Some merchants also owned small weaving workshops. India produced a variety of cotton cloth, some of exceptionally fine quality. Sea island cotton grew in tropical areas and on barrier islands of Georgia and South Carolina, but did poorly inland. Sea island cotton began being exported from Barbados in the s.
Upland green seeded cotton grew well on inland areas of the southern U. The Age of Discovery was followed by a period of colonialism beginning around the 16th century.
Following the discovery of a trade route to India around southern Africa by the Portuguese, the Dutch established the Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie abbr.
VOC or Dutch East India Company and the British founded the East India Companyalong with smaller companies of different nationalities which established trading posts and employed agents to engage in trade throughout the Indian Ocean region and between the Indian Ocean region and North Atlantic Europe.
One of the largest segments of this trade was in cotton textiles, which were purchased in India and sold in Southeast Asia, including the Indonesian archipelago, where spices were purchased for sale to Southeast Asia and Europe.The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid industrialization in the final third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th.
The First Industrial Revolution, which ended in the early to mid s, was punctuated by a slowdown in macroinventions [clarification needed] before the Second Industrial Revolution . Year. Mexico. Americas. Europe. Asia. Cordoba expedition.
Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses. C o l o n i a l M e x I c o N u e v a . from to , India and China dominated the world economy and attracted Europeans to their riches. McDougal Littell Modern World History - Patterns of Interaction: Online Textbook Help Practice Test. Protestant Reformation Crash Course: DBQ Views of Foreigners: Silver, Sugar, or Spices?
World Trade Map: Silver Secondary Documents: Sugar Documents. The to period in Russia was met by a large increase in the available labor force. Coupled with an increase in population, Russia’s emancipation of the serfs freed many of Russia’s serfdom from perpetual slavery.