Reiner 4 Neuroethics 65 Neuroscience has substantially advanced the understanding of how changes in brain biochemistry contribute to mechanisms of tolerance and physical dependence via exposure to addictive drugs. Promoting a brain disease concept is grounded in beneficent and utilitarian thinking: However such claims may yield unintended consequences by fostering discrimination commonly associated with pathology. Specifically, the language of neuroscience used to describe addiction may reduce attitudes such as blame and responsibility while inadvertently identifying addicted persons as neurobiological others.
The Achilles of ancient Greek legend is often counted among the greatest of epic heroes for his fantastical exploits during the Trojan War as depicted by Homer in the Iliad. While it is easy to become seduced by the power and might of invincible Achilles we must remember to not confuse unchecked power with heroism.
While Achilles is indeed powerful, a master warrior by all qualifications, he fails as a hero to be imitated or idolized due to his lack of restraint, his barbarity, his lack of a code of conduct, his impiety and his dishonorable behavior.
Achilles wields great courage and fortitude but he is also is critically deficient in the other perhaps more important cornerstones of the epic hero: Driven by his ill-tempered thirst for glory and prizewinning, Achilles is unable to control himself in the face of humiliation and defeat.
It is this character flaw which makes the son of Peleus an unacceptable role model. We begin the Iiad with Achilles already in a rage as victory in the Trojan War, the epic confrontation between Ilium and Hellas sprung from the Trojan abduction of Helen of Troy from her lawful Greek husband Menelaus, looms overhead, the Greeks having finally sacked one of the last remaining Trojan allied towns and now preparing to march on the glorious city of Troy itself.
In the looting of the town the Greek King Agamemnon had claimed Chryseis as a war prize while Achilles claimed Briseis. The father of Chryseis, a man by the name of Chryses who was a priest of Apollo, having pleaded for his daughters return and having been rebuffed by Agamemnon soon called upon his god for aid who unleashed a series of plagues on the Greek fleet in retribution for the theft.
While Agamemnon stubbornly refused to return the girl, Achilles called forth a council of the Greek officers to come to a solution in hopes of relieving the fleet from the wrath of Apollo.
Agamemnon opted to return Chryseis but also demanded Achilles surrender Briseis and in doing so dishonored him publicly and stole his glory. Achilles spent the next months brooding with fury in his beachside command tent accompanied by his dear friend Patroclus as the Greeks were pushed further and further from the walls of Troy and to the brink of destruction by the seemingly unstoppable Hector.
When it became clear that Hectors forces would soon completely overrun the Greek beachhead and burn the landing ships, leaving the Hellenes stranded, surrounded by enemy and cut off from supply, Achilles still refused to flinch and allowed his countrymen to be slaughtered rather than defend them.
Instead of meeting the responsibilities which accompanied his demigodhood Achilles was content instead to remain idle, even after in book IX Agamemnon pleaded to surrender all of his prizes if just the warrior would return to the field. Achilles only responded after Patroclus, in an effort to inspire the demoralized Greeks and rout the advancing Trojans, donned the armor of Achilles and charged forth against Hector, who slew him outright.
Achilles now channeled his rage away from Agamemnon who he perceived as betraying him and displaced it on Hector, joining the fight against the Trojans in a blind rage. Rather than temper the initial embarrassment of Agamemnon incurred during the loss of his prize woman, aiding in the final push on Troy and ending the campaign without undue bloodshed, the selfish Achilles resorted to negligent and reckless behavior, allowing his countrymen, who had done him no wrong and who he had called brothers in the years preceding the blunder of the king, to perish before Hector.
Achilles had in himself the power to preserve life and instead of wielding it for good instead used it to gratify his own ego and perceived insults with the blood of Trojans. This behavior is unbecoming of a great hero and is humbled by the excellent example of modest and temperate Aeneas who in Vergils Aeneid would come to wield power reluctantly and always with prudence and a just direction.
The psychological flaw of Achilles is in his failure to differentiate between what is in his control and what is outside of his control, a realization central to the philosophy of Stoicism which had come to be the de facto religion of the educated elite by the time of Vergil Murray Things in our control are opinion, pursuit, desire, aversion, and, in a word, whatever are our own actions.
Things not in our control are body, property, reputation, command, and, in one word, whatever are not our own actions. Achilles expects other people to respect his glory, expects others to behave in an honorable way, and thus becomes enraged when a force outside of his control, Agamemnon, seemingly commits an injustice against him.
Achilles is the driver who consistently becomes offended when others on the road behave erratically and degrades himself by always falling prone to the same anger and faulty judgment about the nature of the world.
A nobler, more heroic man is aware of what in his control and what is outside of his control and is cognizant that the opinions and actions of others are nothing to him as they cannot be ruled by him. The true insult to Achilles was not his woman being stolen but his own behavior in how he dealt with it: Instead of focusing on how best he could control what is in his power his own actions, decisions and judgmentsAchilles became obsessed with an injustice inflicted against him which he was powerless in righting and so unmade himself.
Marcus Aurelius in the Meditations summarized heroic temperance and magnanimity the best When you wake up in the morning, tell yourself: But I have seen the beauty of good, and the ugliess of evil, and have recognized that the wrongdoer has a nature related to my own — not of the same blood or birth, but the same mind, and possessing a share of the divine.
And so none of them can hurt me. No one can implicate me in ugliness. Nor can I feel angry at my relative, or hate him. We were born to work together like feet, hands, and eyes, like the two rows of teeth, upper and lower. To obstruct each other is unnatural. To feel anger at someone, to turn your back on him: While the body of Achilles was tempered for battle his mind was prone to weakness, he allowed himself to lose control of himself and surrender his body to the opinions and motives of others, easily seduced by external things and capricious glories, his conduct was thus unbecoming of a heroic individual and more similar to that of a spoiled child.
Instead of acting with magnanimity and attempting to show Agamemnon the error of his ways with grace and civility Achilles instead damned his countrymen to a death sentence and in doing so revealed his own nature as a pirate and mercenary only willing to fight for prizes and public honors.
The hero realizes that prizes and glories of the world are in transitory flux and the only proper virtue of our labor is the dream of a better tomorrow. Again, we must refer to the example of pious Aeneas who endured great humiliation in fleeing his home in hope of offering a future to his people.
We may also refer to better examples of conduct from the real world Romans themselves. The people of Rome venerated the semi-mythical figure of Cincinnatus who unflinchingly abandoned his farm and family to repel the Gauls as the ideal role model Livy and found the incorruptible and austere Cato the Younger who dared to resist the tyranny of Gaius Julius for sake of upholding his duty to the republic as a living example of the embodiment of their national pride, so inspiring his compatriots to virtue and integrity Plutarch Both men embodied the Stoic heroic virtues of temperance, prudence, justice and courage and were interpreted by Livy and Plutarch respectively as being ideal Romans: Aeneas, Cato and Cincinnatus stand as more noble and heroic role models in the stead of the prize-seeking and dangerously erratic Achilles.
The rage of Achilles, unchecked by the superior virtues of temperance and prudence, would come to further tragically undermine his character and eclipse his glory.Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin I apologize for the awkward citations in this essay, MLA just didn’t jive with such heavy usage of online text research.
The Achilles of ancient Greek legend is often counted among the greatest of epic heroes for his fantastical exploits during the Trojan War as depicted by Homer in the Iliad. While it is easy to become seduced by the power and might of invincible Achilles we must remember.
The MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Law and Neuroscience. Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin Common Crossword Clues Starting with W. W W can be a vowel in it W European bridge is high at the start W Pacific republic.
Port Manteaux churns out silly new words when you feed it an idea or two. Enter a word (or two) above and you'll get back a bunch of portmanteaux created by jamming together words that are conceptually related to your inputs.. For example, enter "giraffe" and you'll get .